It varies depending on the type of practice. A standard answer is going to be 4-6 months. Most of this time will be consumed for insurance or medical credentialing. The first thing you should do (after obtaining your professional license and NPI Type 1) is to register an entity or company (Usually LLC), then apply NPI Type 2 for your company and start working on the insurance credentialing. Once you apply for medical / insurance credentialing you should be looking for your office, website etc. Below are some approximate timelines.
Registering Entity / Company (LLC) - 1-3 weeks
Apply EIN - 1-2 days (Prerequisite - Company name and Address)
NPI - same day / 2-3 days (Prerequisite - Company name and address)
Insurance / Medical Credentialing - 3-4 months (Prerequisite - NPI 1 and 2, Company name and address)
Finding office - 1-2 months
Website - 1 month
* Dont forget to file form 2553 to IRS after you incorporate an LLC to avoid double taxation.